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Post Info TOPIC: Today in History


Guru

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RE: Today in History


very interesting again John.

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Dave S

ex Bricklayer 20 years & 33 years Carpet Cleaning

but what do i know, i'm only a old fart.

iv'e lost my glass.



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October 02 Today in History


Gday...

1608 - Hans Lippershey demonstrates the first telescope.

Hans Lippershey, also known as Jan or Hans Lippersheim, was born around 1570 (exact date unknown) in Wesel, western Germany. After settling in the Netherlands, he became a maker of spectacles. Lippershey is credited with creating the design for the first practical telescope, after experimenting with different sized lenses. He demonstrated his invention before the Dutch Parliament on 2 October 1608, calling it a "kijker", meaning "looker" in Dutch. The astronomer Galileo Galilei created a working design of the telescope in 1609 after receiving a description of Lippershey's invention.

1869 - Political leader and humanitarian, Mahatma Gandhi, is born.

Mahatma Gandhi was born Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi on 2 October 1869 in Porbandar, India. Gandhi was a peace-loving man who initially trained as a barrister in England, but was unsuccessful in pursuing a career in law once he returned to India. After accepting a post to Natal, South Africa, Gandhi experienced frequent humiliation and oppression commonly directed at Indians in South Africa. This caused him to then spend two decades fighting for the rights of immigrants in South Africa.

After WWI broke out, Gandhi returned to India. Here, he turned his back on western influences to embrace a life of abstinence and spirituality. Inspired by the American writer Henry David Thoreau's famous essay on "Civil Disobedience", Gandhi implemented his own campaign of non-violent civil disobedience to bring about change in Britain's oppression of Indians within their own country. Although frequently jailed by the British authorities, pressure from his followers usually secured his release before he fasted himself to death. Following WWII, he participated in negotiations which eventually led to India's gaining independence from Britain.

Gandhi advocated that all people were equal under one God. On 30 January 1948 he was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic who could not accept Gandhi's assertion that Muslims had equal value to Hindus and no creed or religion was better than any other.

1902 - William Gocher defies the Australian law that prohibits daylight bathing in the ocean, and sets a new precedent in surf-swimming.

In the 1800s, a Manly Council by-law (Sydney) prohibited swimming in the ocean during daylight hours, specifically between 6am and 8pm. William Henry Gocher was the proprietor of a local newspaper, who disagreed with the law enough to openly defy it. In his newspaper, the 'Manly and North Sydney News', he announced his intention to go bathing in the ocean during the daylight hours on 2 October 1902.

Gocher flouted the law three times before he was actually arrested. However, he maintained his campaign against the bathing laws, and a year later, on November 3rd, the Manly Council rescinded the by-law that prohibited bathing during daylight hours. A new by-law was issued permitting bathing in daylight hours, but emphasising the need for neck-to-knee swimwear for anyone over 8 years old. Men and women were also required to swim at separate times.

1942 - Ocean Liner 'The Queen Mary' accidentally slices through an escort ship, killing 338.

The ocean liner 'Queen Mary' sailed the North Atlantic Ocean as a passenger ship from 1936 to 1967, except during the years of World War II. In 1940, the Queen Mary was commissioned for use as a troop ship. In Sydney, the Queen Mary, together with several other liners, was converted into a troopship to carry Australian and New Zealand soldiers to the UK.

These ships earned a reputation for being the largest and fastest troopships, carrying up to 15,000 men in a single voyage. The Queen Mary and the Queen Elizabeth, also converted, were both nicknamed 'The Grey Ghost'. Their speed, and the fact that they often travelled out of convoy and without an escort, enabled them to elude the German U-boats, their greatest threat.

On 2 October 1942, the Queen Mary was travelling with an escort. Whilst travelling near the Irish coast, the liner accidentally sliced through its escort ship, light cruiser HMS Curacoa. The Captain was forced to continue, being under strict orders not to stop for any reason, due to the threat posed by the U-boats. Royal Navy destroyers which accompanied the ship were ordered to reverse course and rescue any survivors. 338 people were killed in the accident.

1950 - The comic strip 'Peanuts', by Charles M Schulz, makes its debut in seven newspapers across America.

Charles Monroe Schulz, creator of 'Peanuts', was born in St Paul, Minnesota, on 26 November 1922. As a teenager, he was shy and introverted, and when he created his comic strip 'Peanuts' he based the character of Charlie Brown on himself. Charlie Brown first appeared in the comic strip "Li'l Folks", published in 1947 by the St Paul Pioneer Press. In 1950, Schulz approached the United Features Syndicate with his best strips from "Li'l Folks", and "Peanuts" made its debut on 2 October 1950.

"Peanuts" ran for nearly 50 years, appearing in over 2,600 newspapers in 75 countries. It ended only when Schulz's own failing health prevented him from continuing to produce the comic strip. The final original Peanuts comic strip was written on 3 January 2000 and published in newspapers a day after Schulz's death on February 12.

Cheers - John



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Guru

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RE: Today in History


thanks John good reading again.

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Dave S

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Imagine Australian beaches without surf life savers and our Olympic swimmers without Speedos. Unthinkable.

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Gary

Ford Courier with Freeway slide-on called "PJ". www.aussieodyssey.com



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October 03 Today in History


Gday...

1824 - Explorers Hume and Hovell set out to explore between Sydney and Western Port.

Hamilton Hume was an Australian-born settler with excellent bush skills. He was interested in exploring south of the known Sydney area in order to open up new areas of land, but could not gain Government support for his proposed venture. William Hovell was an English immigrant with little bush experience, a former ship's captain who was keen to assist Hume's expedition financially, and accompany him. The expedition was set up, and Hume and Hovell departed Hume's father's farm at Appin, southwest of Sydney, on 3 October 1824.

Although the two men argued for most of their journey, and even for many years after their return, the expedition was successful in many ways. Hume and Hovell were the first to discover the "Hume River", though it was later renamed by Sturt as the Murray River. They were the first white men to see the Australian Alps. Much good grazing and pasture land was also found.

There was one major mistake, however. Hovell, as navigator, managed to incorrectly calculate their position when they thought they had reached Westernport on the southern coast. They were in fact at Corio Bay in Port Phillip, where the city of Geelong now stands. As a result of their reports of excellent farmland when they returned to Sydney, a party was sent to settle the Westernport area in 1826, only to find poor water and soil quality. The Port Philip settlement was abandoned, and not resumed for another ten years. Nonetheless, Hume and Hovell's expedition still opened up vast tracts of valuable land.

1916 - Inventor of the portable defibrillator, James F Pantridge, is born.

James Francis "Frank" Pantridge was born on 3 October 1916, in Hillsborough, Ireland. He was educated at Queen's University in Belfast, graduating in medicine in 1939, and became a physician and cardiologist. He served in the British Army during WWII, became a prisoner of war and spent much time working on the infamous Burma railway. After the war, he returned to a life of academia, and studied further under cardiologist F N Wilson.

After returning to Northern Ireland in 1950, he was appointed as cardiac consultant to the Royal Victoria Hospital and professor at Queen's University, where he established a specialist cardiology unit. Together with his colleague Dr John Geddes, he introduced modern cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for the early treatment of heart attack. Further study led Frank Pantridge to the realisation that death occurred within the first hour for 60% of pre-middle-aged males who died from heart attack, and of these, 90% suffered ventricular fibrillation. To facilitate the earliest possible treatment, Pantridge equipped an ambulance with a portable defibrillator. It achieved a 50% long-term patient survival rate. The first automated external defibrillators (AEDs) became available in 1979, and have since contributed significantly to improved chances of survival from heart attack.

1935 - Italian troops invade the African nation of Abyssinia (now Ethiopia).

In 1934, Abyssinia (Ethiopia) was still one of the few independent states in a European-dominated Africa. Countries such as Britain and France had conquered smaller nations in the "Scramble for Africa" the previous century. In 1896, Italy had attempted to expand in eastern Africa by adding Abyssinia to her conquests (which included Eritrea and Somaliland), but the Italians were heavily defeated by the Abyssinians at the Battle of Adowa. Italy bided her time.

In 1928, Italy signed a treaty of friendship with Abyssinian leader Haile Selassie, but Italy was already secretly planning to invade the African nation. In December 1934, a dispute at the Wal Wal oasis along the border between Abyssinia and Italian Somaliland gave Italian dictator Benito Mussolini an excuse to respond with aggression. Italian troops stationed in Somaliland and Eritrea were instructed to attack Abyssinia, and the invasion occurred on 3 October 1935. Overwhelmed by the use of tanks and mustard gas, the Abyssinians stood little chance. The capital, Addis Ababa, fell in May 1936 and Haile Selassie was removed from the throne and replaced by the king of Italy, Victor Emmanuel.

Selassie's request for European help was largely ignored. It was not until after World War II, and the defeat of Italy, that he was returned to power.

1935 - The Australian/New Zealand dessert, the pavlova, is named after ballerina Anna Pavlova.

The pavlova is a traditional Australian dessert consisting of a base made of a meringue crust topped with whipped cream and fresh fruits such as kiwi fruit, passionfruit and strawberries.

There is some dispute as to whether the pavlova was actually created in Australia or New Zealand. The Australian legend states that the pavlova was created by Herbert Sachse, the chef of the Hotel Esplanade in Perth, Western Australia, on 3 October 1935. It is said to have been given the name "Pavlova" by Harry Naire from the Perth hotel, in honour of the visiting Russian ballerina, Anna Pavlova. Naire is alleged to have stated that the built up sides of the dessert reminded him of a tutu.

New Zealand may have a greater claim to the pavlova, however. Recipes for pavlova appeared in a magazine and a cookery book from 1929 and 1933, whilst extra notes from a biographer state that it was invented in 1926 after Anna Pavlova's visit. What is clear is that, while the dessert may have been invented in New Zealand, it was undisputedly named in Australia.

1953 - Britain tests its first atomic bomb at a group of uninhabited islands off Western Australia.

The Montebello islands are a group of islands about 140 kilometres off the Pilbara coast of North West Australia. As well as the two main islands, Hermite Island and Trimouille Island, there are about 170 other islands in the archipelago, of which another 30 or so are named. Prior to World War II, much pearl fishing was conducted off the islands.

On 3 October 1952, the Montebello islands became the site for testing of the first British atomic bomb. "Operation Hurricane" was conducted 350 metres off the coast of Trimouille Island for the purpose of testing the effects of a bomb smuggled inside a ship - a great concern at the time. The plutonium implosion bomb was exploded inside the hull of HMS Plym, a 1,370-ton River class frigate, which was anchored in 12 m of water. The resulting explosion left a saucer-shaped crater on the seabed 6 metres deep and 300 metres across.

1990 - West Germany and East Germany are reunified for the first time since 1949.

Following Germany's defeat in World War II, Germany was split into two separately controlled countries. West Germany, also known as the Federal Republic of Germany, was proclaimed on 23 May 1949 with Bonn as its capital. As a liberal parliamentary republic and part of NATO, the country maintained good relations with the Western Allies. East Germany, or the German Democratic Republic, was proclaimed in East Berlin on 7 October 1949. It adopted a socialist republic, and remained allied with the communist powers, being occupied by Soviet forces. The Berlin Wall, which divided the original capital of Germany into east and west-controlled sectors, was constructed in 1961.

The Soviet powers began to dwindle in the late 1980s, and the Communist Party in East Germany began to lose its grip on power. In 1989 the Berlin Wall started to crumble, and was completely dismantled shortly afterwards. On 18 March 1990, the first and only free elections in the history of the GDR were held, producing a government whose major mandate was to negotiate an end to itself and its state. The German "Einigungsvertrag" (Unification Treaty) was signed on 31 August 1990 by representatives of West Germany and East Germany. German reunification took place on 3 October 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic, also known as East Germany, were incorporated into The Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany.

Cheers - John



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Guru

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RE: Today in History


thanks John. it was good to see both East & West Germany got back together in the early 90s.

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Dave S

ex Bricklayer 20 years & 33 years Carpet Cleaning

but what do i know, i'm only a old fart.

iv'e lost my glass.



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October 04 Today in History


Gday...

1797 - The first flock of Spanish Merinos, upon which Australia's wool industry was founded, arrive in Sydney.

In the early years of settlement, the colony of New South Wales struggled to achieve self-sufficiency. The convicts were not skilled in farming, and unwilling to work hard in the intense heat and humidity of Australia. British farming methods, seeds and implements were unsuitable for use in the different climate and soil, and the colony faced near-starvation in its first two years. An industry suited to Australia's harsh conditions needed to be established.

John Macarthur arrived in New South Wales in 1790. In 1793, Macarthur was given a land grant of 100 acres which he cleared and improved, assisted by convict labour. After receiving another land grant, he and his wife Elizabeth worked hard to improve and develop the land, eventually planting 120 acres of wheat, and numerous fruits and vegetables.

On 4 October 1797, the first flock of Spanish merino sheep arrived in Australia. They had been bought in South Africa by British officers Henry Waterhouse and William Kent, who then sold some of them to the Macarthurs. The Spanish Merino was a hardy sheep which was tolerant of Australia's extreme conditions. Unlike other settlers, Macarthur did not try to cross-breed the sheep with other breeds, which only resulted in sheep with coarse wool of a lower quality. By 1803, the Macarthur flock numbered over 4000. The Macarthurs had improved the bloodline and strength of the flock by purchasing merinos from flocks in different regions, thus limiting inter-breeding of similar bloodlines. For this reason, John Macarthur is often regarded as the founder of the wool industry in Australia.

1883 - The Orient Express commences its first run.

The Orient Express is the name of a long-distance passenger train, the route for which has changed considerably in modern times. The first run of The Orient Express was on 4 October 1883. The train travelled from Paris to Giurgiu in Romania, via Munich and Vienna. At Giurgiu, passengers were ferried across the Danube to Ruse in Bulgaria to pick up another train to Varna. From here they completed their journey to Istanbul by ferry.

The Orient Express reached the height of its popularity in the 1930s, when three parallel services ran. These included the Orient Express, the Simplon Orient Express, which took a more southerly route via Milan, Venice and Trieste, and also the Arlberg Orient Express, which ran via Zurich and Innsbruck to Budapest, with sleeper cars running onwards from there to Bucharest and Athens.

1931 - The comic strip "Dick Tracy" makes its debut.

The comic strip "Dick Tracy" revolves around the investigations of a character by the same name, Dick Tracy. Tracy is an exceptionally intelligent police detective, classic in his 1930s attire, and forced to match his wits against a variety of strange-looking and unmitigatingly evil villains. These criminals invariably have names to match their grotesquely deformed features. Such characters include "Flattop" Jones and the Nazi spy Pruneface.

"Dick Tracy" was originally created by cartoonist Chester Gould, and made its debut on 4 October 1931. Gould drew Dick Tracy up until 1977 when he retired, but his work was continued by Max Allan Collins and longtime Gould assistant Rick Fletcher, who in turn was succeeded by editorial cartoonist Dick Locher. The modern strips have incorporated new villains keeping up with modern technology, such as the video pirate named Splitscreen.

Dick Tracy is easily one of the world's longest-running comic strips. It enjoyed a fourteen-year run as a radio serial, and has formed the basis for a number of television programmes, feature films, and a major 1990 film starring Warren Beatty.

1935 - The Hornibrook Highway, Australia's longest road bridge for many decades, is opened, allowing access to the Redcliffe Peninsula.

The city of Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia, was the site of the first European settlement in Moreton Bay. Oxley and Settlement Commandant Lieutenant Miller, together with a crew and 29 convicts, sailed on the 'Amity' from Sydney and arrived at Redcliffe on 13 September 1824 to found the new colony. Abandoned as a convict colony less than a year later when the main settlement was moved 30km away to the Brisbane River, it was eventually reclaimed by free settlers, becoming a popular seaside resort in the 1880s. Originally, day trippers would travel to the Redcliffe Peninsula by steamer, whilst those planning for a longer stay would travel the inland route from Brisbane, via Petrie.

The area's increasing popularity necessitated the building of a bridge across the mouth of the Pine River at Hayes Inlet, which separates the Brisbane suburb of Brighton from Redcliffe. On 4 October 1935, the 2.8km two-lane Hornibrook Highway was opened, reducing Redcliffe's isolation. Still Australia's longest road bridge, it has a single central arch where the channel of the river runs, allowing for fishing craft to pass underneath. Deterioration of the bridge through the years necessitated the building of a new bridge, and a replacement three lane bridge, the Houghton Highway, was opened in 1979. The Hornibrook Highway was, for many years, used only for pedestrians and cyclists. Until it was dismantled in 2011, it remained a popular fishing spot.

On 11 July 2010, yet another new road bridge was opened, 30 metres east of the Houghton Highway. The 'Ted Smout Memorial Bridge', built 4 metres higher than the Houghton, features 3 traffic lanes and a pedestrian and cycle path, as well as a fishing platform near the Pine River channel.

The Hornibrook Highway lost its status as Australia's longest road bridge in 2013, with the opening of a new bridge over the Macleay River in New South Wales.

1957 - The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth.

The year 1957 saw the beginning of the "Space Age", and the beginning of the "Space Race" between the USA and the USSR. The Soviet Union became the first to launch an artificial satellite into orbit around the Earth, on 4 October 1957. The Sputnik spacecraft, meaning 'companion' or 'fellow traveller', weighed 83kg and was about the size of a basketball. It orbited the Earth approximately every 98 minutes at a speed of 32,000km per hour, 800km above the earth. Sputnik was launched from Kazakhstan, and stayed in orbit for three months, plunging to Earth on 4 January 1958.

Cheers - John



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RE: Today in History


very interesting again John. thanks

__________________

Dave S

ex Bricklayer 20 years & 33 years Carpet Cleaning

but what do i know, i'm only a old fart.

iv'e lost my glass.



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I remember the TV news saying the sputnik would be visible as a moving star at a certain hour so we all went outside and witnessed it. Exciting times back then, the beginning of the space race.

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Gary

Ford Courier with Freeway slide-on called "PJ". www.aussieodyssey.com



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October 05 Today in History


Gday...

1582 - Pope Gregory decrees that October 5 will become October 15.

The Gregorian calendar, widely adopted in the western world, was initially decreed by Pope Gregory XIII on 24 February 1582. The Gregorian calendar was first proposed by Aloysius Lilius because the mean year in the Julian Calendar was slightly long, causing the vernal equinox to slowly advance earlier in the calendar year.

On 5 October 1582, the Gregorian calendar was actively adopted for the first time. It required an adjustment to correct 11 accumulated days from the Julian calendar. The day following Thursday, 4 October 1582 was Friday, 15 October 1582, effective in most Catholic countries such as Italy, Poland, Spain and Portugal. Non-Catholic countries such as Scotland, Britain and the latter's colonies still used the Julian calendar up until 1752, and some Asian countries were still using the Julian calendar up until the early twentieth century.

1789 - Australia's first ferry service begins operation.

Australia was colonised by the English in January 1788, and the colony of Sydney quickly grew. Although remote and isolated from the rest of the world, life in New South Wales promised new opportunities for people who had lost employment in England's industrial revolution. As business, farms, trades and the population expanded, so did the need for efficient transportation of goods and people. The roads were well-utilised, but the Parramatta River was also a useful avenue for transportation.

During the first eighteen months of the colony, water transport comprised small rowboats from the First Fleet vessels. In response to the need for better water transport, the first locally-built ferry was launched, on 5 October 1789. The "Rose Hill Packet", commonly known as 'the Lump', was Australia's first ferry service. A wooden hoy, 'the Lump' weighed 12 tons and could navigate the journey from Sydney Cove to Rose Hill (now Parramatta) in just 2 days.

1857 - The first leg is opened of what later becomes the Adelaide to Darwin transcontinental railway line.

Victoria is generally accepted as the first place in Australia to have had a completed railway line. The first steam train in Australia made its maiden voyage on 12 September 1854, running between Flinders Street and Sandridge, now Port Melbourne. However, the first railway ever to run in Australia was actually in South Australia.

South Australia was the only Australian state to remain completely convict-free, and it quickly grew, fed by immigrants and free settlers in search of a better life or escaping religious persecution. South Australia was the site where Australia's first paddle-steamer was launched. It was the site from which both the first east to west crossing and successful south to north crossing of the continent was undertaken. It was also the first colony to implement a railway.

South Australia began operations of horse-drawn trains in May 1854. The line ran from Goolwa, on the Murray River, to the harbour at Port Elliot, and was used to move supplies between craft navigating the Murray River, and coastal and ocean-going vessels. From these humble beginnings, greater things grew. In 1856, the first steam-train ran between Adelaide and Port Adelaide. The following year, the first track was laid of what would ultimately become the Adelaide to Darwin transcontinental railway line, or the Ghan. Opened on 5 October 1857, this line ran the 30km from Adelaide to Gawler, and served the agricultural and mining industries of the area.

1889 - Inventor Thomas Edison shows his first motion picture.

Thomas Alva Edison was born on 11 February 1847 in Milan, Ohio, USA. Childhood illness meant that he was a slow starter and easily distracted in his schooling. After his teacher described him as "addled", his mother, a former schoolteacher herself, took charge of her son's education, stimulating his curiosity and desire to experiment.

He began selling newspapers on the railroad at age 12, and learned how to operate a telegraph. In 1868, his first invention was an electric vote-recording machine. The invention which first gained Edison fame was the phonograph in 1877, but in 1876 he had moved his laboratory to Menlo Park, New Jersey, where he invented the first prototype of a commercially practical incandescent electric light bulb, in 1879.

By the late 1880s he started experimenting with moving pictures. In his laboratory he produced the Kinetograph, a motion picture camera, and the Kinetoscope, which was a peephole motion picture viewer. On 5 October 1889, he showed his first motion picture. Edison was a prolific inventor, and he became known as "The Wizard of Menlo Park".

1974 - American David Kunst completes his circumnavigation of the world on foot.

Thirty-year-old American David Kunst left the town of Waseca, Minnesota, on 20 June 1970, to set out on his round-the-world journey by foot. Two of David's brothers accompanied him at different times on his journey. Initially he was joined by his 23-year-old brother John, but John was killed and David wounded by thieves in Afghanistan in 1972. David only survived by playing dead.

Kunst returned to his home town to recover before resuming his journey back in Afghanistan with his brother Peter. Kunst completed his circumnavigation on 5 October 1974, having trekked across four continents. His journey covered more than 23,000km.

1989 - The Dalai Lama, Tibet's spiritual leader, is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

Tenzin Gyatso was the fourteenth Dalai Lama. He was born Lhamo Thondup on 6 July 1935 in the village of Taktser which is in the north-eastern province of Amdo, Tibet. He came from a humble farming family, and began his monastic education when he was only 6 years old.

As well as being Tibet's spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama is also the Head of State. In this position, he appealed to the United Nations to improve Tibet's relations with China, after China encroached upon Tibetan territory in the 1950s. The Dalai Lama's aim was to gain China's respect for the human rights of Tibetans and their wish to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. In the 1980s, he proposed a Five-Point Peace Plan at the Congressional Human Rights Caucus held in the USA in 1987. This plan cemented his further proposals for Tibetan autonomy from Chinese influence and domination. The Dalai Lama was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on 5 October 1989.

Cheers - John



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RE: Today in History


thanks John. have been on the goolwa to victor train then rode our bikes back to goolwa. the train & bike track run just up from the beach.

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Dave S

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Two days from Sydney to Parramatta? Sheesh!

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October 06 Today in History


Gday...

1862 - Australia's first zoo opens in Melbourne.

Australia has a large number of zoos. Many of these are to show exotic animals from around the world; many others have the purpose of helping to provide a sanctuary for Australia's own endangered and threatened native species.

The first zoo in Australia was Melbourne Zoo, which opened on 6 October 1862. Modelled after the London Zoo, it featured formal Victorian-era gardens and just a few specimens of monkeys, as well as a limited display of native animals. The zoo began to change in character with the appointment of Albert le Souef as Director in 1870. He began to acquire a wider variety of exotic animals such as black bears, lions and tigers. As the zoo gained in popularity, the gardens were extended, more animals added and, in 1881, an entry fee introduced. Once elephants were added to the displays, elephant rides were even offered to the patrons.

The modern Melbourne Zoo has come a long way since the early years. Animals are housed in more natural settings where they are seen less as 'showpieces', and features unique to their native habitat are incorporated into the display. The grounds feature an extensive Australian native animal display area.

1890 - Jacob Schweppe demonstrates his process for manufacturing the world's first artificially carbonated mineral water.

Jean Jacob Schweppe was born in 1740 in Witzenhausen, Germany. Although Schweppe was a jeweller, he had an interest in science, and his experiments led him to try infusing water with carbon dioxide. In 1783, he invented an efficient system for the manufacture of carbonated mineral water. Initially he gave away the carbonated water for free, but as it gained popularity he began charging for the privilege.

Schweppe then sought a way in which to keep the bubbles in the water. This led to the development of a bottle that could retain the carbonation, thus starting the Schweppes soft drink business. The Schweppes company was founded in London in 1789. On 6 October 1890, Schweppe demonstrated for the first time his process for manufacturing carbonated water.

1898 - Catherine "Kate" Kelly, sister of bushranger Ned Kelly, goes missing.

Ned Kelly had five sisters, two half-sisters, two brothers and one half-brother. His sisters were Maggie, who was born in 1857, three years after Ned, and Catherine, variously nicknamed Kate or Kittie, who was born in 1863. In addition, there were Mary, who died as a baby, Anne and Grace. Ned Kelly's two brothers were Daniel, who joined Ned in the Kelly gang, and James. Sometime after Ned Kelly's father died, his mother remarried, and bore another two daughters, Ellen and Alice and a son, John, also known as Jack.

Kate Kelly was perhaps the best known of Ned Kelly's siblings. Legend claims that she was the fiancee of Aaron Sherritt, notorious for betraying the Kelly gang to the police, and being shot for his trouble. Kate also had another admirer, Alexander Fitzpatrick, who attempted to ingratiate himself into the Kelly family. After making unwelcome advances towards young Kate, he was attacked by Ned's mother, beaten by one brother and allegedly shot by Ned, although the doctor who attended Fitzpatrick did not confirm a gunshot wound. The event resulted in Ned's mother being arrested, and the brothers being hunted further by police. Kate was a central catalyst to these circumstances.

After helping hold the family together following the arrest of their mother, at the age of 25, Kate married William Henry Foster of Forbes. She was a skilled and respected horsewoman, and perpetuated the family line by bearing six children, three of whom survived to adulthood.

Kate's colourful life ended tragically when she was just 35 years old. Some two years after her sister Maggie died, Kate went missing, on 6 October 1898. Eight days passed before her body was located in a lagoon at Condobolin Road near Forbes. Initial indications were that she died of drowning, but the magisterial inquiry that was held into her death on 15 October did not indicate how or why this could have occurred. Kate's death certificate stated there was no evidence, but family and friends believed her depression following Maggie's death contributed to her own death.

1914 - Thor Heyerdahl, the Norwegian explorer who led the Kon-Tiki expedition, is born.

Thor Heyerdahl, born on 6 October 1914 in Larvik, Norway was an anthropologist and marine biologist who developed an interest in the origins of settlement in the islands of the south Pacific. In 1947, he proposed an expedition to prove that people from South America could have settled Polynesia in the south Pacific before European exploration made any impact in the area. He and a crew of 5 sailed on the Kon-Tiki, a simple balsawood raft made in a design similar to that used by South American natives. Heyerdahl sailed the Kon-Tiki for 101 days over a distance of nearly 7,000km across the Pacific Ocean before crashing into the reef at Raroia in the Tuamotu Islands on 7 August 1947.

Heyerdahl believed this proved his theory of the origins of the south Pacific peoples, and the subsequent documentary he produced received wide acclaim. However, more recent research and DNA testing has shown that the natives of the area bear more similarities to the people of southeast Asia than to the people of South America.

1962 - Joseph Charles, California's famous "waving man", begins his waving ritual which would continue for 30 years.

Joseph Charles was an unassuming employee of the Oakland Naval Supply Centre who brought joy to complete strangers through his ritual of waving to them, often with a cheery greeting. Charles began his routine on the morning of 6 October 1962 when a neighbour waved to him, and he reciprocated. Returning the wave the next day began an institution that extended to friends and strangers as they passed by, and lasted thirty years.

Every morning until October 1992, a period of thirty years, Charles waved from his front yard on the corner of Martin Luther King Jr Way and Oregon St in Berkeley, California. He donned bright yellow gloves for his waving, and called out cheery greetings, such as "Have a good day!"

Charles died a decade after he stopped waving, on 14 March 2002. At his funeral, which was attended by over 200 people, he was honoured by mourners waving at his casket as it left McGee Avenue Baptist Church. Mayor Shirley Dean encouraged others to continue Charles's legacy of bringing joy by showing kindness and goodwill to all in such a simple but effective way.

Cheers - John



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Melbourne Zoo - how it has changed - for the better. I remember the elephant when I was a little girl - I desperately wanted to ride on it's back, but wasn't allowed, my folks thought I would fall off. Took my granddaughter several years ago, and she had so much fun in the seal enclosure, looking through the glass and playing with a seal, she ran up and down, and the seal followed, only he did a few somersaults as well, she loved it.

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i wave to you John . very interesting again.

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October 07 Today in History


Gday...

1798 - Sea explorers Flinders and Bass set out to prove that Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) is an island.

Matthew Flinders and George Bass were early sea explorers who charted sections of Australia's coastline, adding valuable information to the current charts. In 1798, Bass explored along the southern coast of what would later become the colony of Victoria. His journeys led him to the belief that Van Diemen's Land (later Tasmania) was separate from the mainland. Governor Hunter wished for this theory to be proven conclusively, so he commissioned Flinders and Bass to circumnavigate Van Diemen's Land.

The two men set out at dawn on 7 October 1798. By January of the following year, they had completed their circumnavigation of the island. Governor Hunter subsequently named the stretch of water between the mainland and Van Diemen's Land as "Bass's Strait", later to be known as Bass Strait.

1854 - Scottish gold miner James Scobie dies, a catalyst to events that will eventually result in the Eureka Stockade.

James Scobie was an unassuming gold miner who came to Australia from Scotland to make his fortune on the Ballarat goldfields. After becoming involved in a fight at the Eureka Hotel, also known as Bentley's Hotel, Scobie died on 7 October 1854.

An inquest into his death absolved the hotel owner, Bentley, and his staff of any wrongdoing. The miners, however, felt that justice had been thwarted, and held a meeting outside the hotel on October 17. Tempers flared, a riot ensued and the hotel was burnt to the ground. As a result of this, more troopers were sent from Melbourne, and miners were subjected to more frequent licence checks, and more frequent clashes between miners and troopers.

Another inquest into Scobie's death was held on 18 November 1854, during which Bentley and two of his staff were found guilty of manslaughter and sentenced to three years' hard labour in the road-gangs. The general dissatisfaction generated by these events was a catalyst in the events leading up to the Eureka stockade of December 3.

1949 - East Germany is formed after Germany is split, following WWII.

Following Germany's defeat in World War II, Germany was split into two separately controlled countries. West Germany, also known as the Federal Republic of Germany, was proclaimed on 23 May 1949, with Bonn as its capital. As a liberal parliamentary republic and part of NATO, the country maintained good relations with the Western Allies. East Germany, or the German Democratic Republic, was proclaimed in East Berlin on 7 October 1949. It adopted a socialist republic, and remained allied with the communist powers, being occupied by Soviet forces.

The Soviet powers began to dwindle in the late 1980s, and the Communist Party in East Germany began to lose its grip on power. On 18 March 1990, the first and only free elections in the history of East Germany were held, producing a government whose major mandate was to negotiate an end to itself and its state. The German "Einigungsvertrag" (Unification Treaty) was signed on 31 August 1990 by representatives of West Germany and East Germany. German reunification took place on 3 October 1990, when the areas of the former East Germany ceased to exist, having been incorporated into The Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany.

1959 - The far side of the moon is photographed for the first time.

The far side of the moon is sometimes called the "dark side" of the moon. There is no true "dark side" of the Moon as all parts of the Moon get sunlight half the time, except for some deep craters near its poles. Up until 1959, however, the far side of the moon, the side which is always facing away from the Earth, was completely unknown.

The Russian probe, Luna 3, was launched on 3 October 1959. It was launched on a figure-8 trajectory bringing it to within 6,200 km of the Moon and around to the far side, which was illuminated by the sun at the time. The first photographs of the far side of the moon were taken on 7 October 1959.

Although the pictures were indistinct and of poor resolution, they clearly showed features on the far side, including a mountainous region.

2001 - The USA , assisted by Britain, commences a series of military strikes against the Taliban in Afghanistan.

Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on 11 September 2001, in which over 3,000 people were killed, America acted quickly to determine who was responsible. The attacks were linked to al-Qaeda, the Islamic militant group headed by Osama Bin Laden.

Beginning on 7 October 2001, British and American forces carried out a sustained attack on a number of Afghanistan targets where Bin Laden was presumed to be hiding. Around 50 cruise missiles were launched from submarines in the Arabian Sea, whilst B2 Stealth bombers were also flown in. Within three months, the Taliban regime in Afghanistan fell, assisted by the Northern Alliance, an army of rebel Afghan factions.

Cheers - John



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thanks John.

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October 08 Today in History


Gday...

1361 - A duel occurs between a dog and the Frenchman who murdered his master.

A most unusual duel took place on 8 October 1361.

Aubry de Montdidier was a French gentleman who was travelling through the forest of Bondy, when he was murdered and buried at the foot of a tree. His dog stayed at the makeshift grave for several days, then proceeded into Paris, where he presented himself at the house of a longtime friend of his master's. Persuaded by the dog's insistent behaviour, the friend followed the dog back to the grave, where the friend found Montdidier's body.

It seemed that the murderer would get away with his crime until, some time later, the dog happened to be confronted with an individual named the Chevalier Macaire. He flew at the man's throat in an uncharacteristic display of aggression which was repeated on numerous subsequent occasions whenever the two met. Naturally, this aroused suspicions, even capturing the attention of the king of France, who ordered the dog to be brought to him. The dog was well behaved until it saw Macaire among a group of noblemen, and again flew at his throat. The king then ordered that a duel should take place between the dog and Macaire on 8 October 1361. During the duel, the dog attacked Macaire repeatedly, until the man confessed to the murder. Macaire was later beheaded on a scaffold in the Isle of Notre Dame.

1818 - Oxley discovers and names Port Macquarie.

John Oxley's expedition into the interior in 1818 was for the purpose of following and charting the Macquarie River. His experience in following the Lachlan River the previous year had left him disappointed with the countryside. It had been a flood year, and much of the Lachlan overflowed into marshy tracts, with Oxley declaring the land useless and unusable. This was repeated with the Macquarie. Floods and marshes blocked his way, and he was returning to Sydney when he discovered the rich and fertile Liverpool Plains.

Buoyed by the discovery of good land at last, Oxley continued east, crossed the Great Diving Range and came upon the Hastings River. He and his party followed the river to its mouth, traversing what Oxley described as "excellent and rich country". On 8 October 1818 Oxley reached the seashore at an excellent harbour and river estuary. Oxley named the region Port Macquarie. His discovery was significant for it opened up the interior of New South Wales right through from the coast to the Macquarie River.

1871 - The Great Chicago Fire begins.

The Great Chicago Fire was a devastating blaze which began on the evening of Sunday, 8 October 1871. Rumours abound that it was started when a cow in a shed kicked over a lantern, but a reporter for the 'Chicago Republican' newspaper later admitted making up the story. How the fire really began remains unknown.

It had been a hot, dry summer. Chicago's buildings were mostly made of wood, providing the tinder for the fire to quickly spread. Due to a series of misunderstandings, the fire department was slow to respond. As a result, the fire quickly grew out of control, consuming residences, mansions, hotels, churches, commercial and industrial buildings in its path. When the city's waterworks were destroyed, the fire department could no longer fight the blaze. Martial law was declared when the fire jumped the river and continued on the north side.

The fire eventually burned itself out when the winds dropped and a light rain moved in a day later. It had cut a swathe through the city six kilometres long and one kilometre wide. 17,500 buildings were incinerated, along with 120km of roads, while the fire left 90,000 homeless. Damage was estimated at $222 million. The death toll was never determined exactly: 125 bodies were recovered, but another 75 to 175 were missing.

1939 - Australian actor and comedian, Paul Hogan, is born.

Paul Hogan was born on 8 October 1939, in the north-western New South Wales town of Lightning Ridge. Initially he worked as a rigger on the Sydney Harbour Bridge, but during the 1970s he developed his own television comedy sketch programme. "The Paul Hogan Show" ran for 60 episodes between 1973 and 1984, and was popular amongst Australians for its larrikin "Aussie" humour. In 1986, Hogan co-produced and starred in "Crocodile Dundee" as a down-to-earth hunter travelling from the Australian Outback to New York City. It remains Australia's most successful film to date.

1952 - 112 are killed as three trains crash at Harrow, London.

On 8 October 1952, Harrow, in London's northeast, became the scene of Britain's worst peacetime rail crash. At 0820 GMT, an express train heading from Perth to London crashed into the back of a stationary Tring-Euston commuter train, just as it was about to depart Harrow and Wealdstone station on the London Midland region line. Another train from Euston then crashed into the two wrecked trains.

108 passengers and 4 railway crew were killed, while another 340 people were injured. An inquiry into the disaster found that the driver of the train from Perth went through two signals at danger, then ran into the Tring-Euston commuter at about 100kph.

Cheers - John



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great read again John

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another good read thanks John.

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October 09 Today in History


Gday...

1769 - Explorer James Cook first sets foot on New Zealand.

Captain James Cook was not the first to discover New Zealand, as he was preceded by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman. He was, however, the first to circumnavigate the coastline when he was sent to observe the transit of Venus across the sun from the vantage point of Tahiti. The transit of Venus occurs when the planet Venus passes directly between the Earth and the Sun, and its unlit side can be seen as a small black circle moving across the face of the Sun. Transits of Venus occur in pairs, eight years apart, approximately once every 120 years. Cook's ship, the 'Endeavour', departed England, on 25 August 1768. Cook reached Tahiti in time for his crew and scientists to set up their instrumentation necessary to observe and report on the transit, which occurred on 3 June 1769.

After observing the transit of Venus, Cook went on to search for Terra Australis Incognita, the great continent which some believed to extend round the pole. It was shortly after observing the transit of Venus that Cook came across New Zealand, which had already been discovered by Abel Tasman in 1642. Early in October 1769, a 12-year-old cabin boy named Nicholas Young first sighted New Zealand, and two days later the 'Endeavour' anchored in Poverty Bay, which Cook originally named as Endeavour Bay. The next day, 9 October 1769, Cook and two botanists, Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander, went ashore at the future site of Gisborne.

Cook went on to spend some months in New Zealand, charting the coastline. His initial encounters with the people of New Zealand was marred by incidents which resulted in the deaths of several Mori, but he was later able to establish friendly trading relations with them.

1799 - The 'HMS Lutine' is wrecked, killing 270, and spawning a legend of Lost Gold.

The 'HMS Lutine' was a warship at a time when tensions were high between the Dutch and the British, and there was constant fear of invasion and plundering from either side. The Lutine was commissioned by a group of London merchants, concerned with the unsettling conditions in Europe, to ship a cargo of between half a million and 2 million in gold and silver to the European continent. On the night of 9 October 1799, exceptionally rough weather caused the ship to crash on a sandbank off the Dutch coast, and 269 lives were lost.

Despite many attempts, the valuable cargo of the Lutine has never been recovered. It was insured by Lloyd's of London underwriters who took an enormous loss and paid the claim in full. In 1858, the bell of the Lutine was recovered and installed at Lloyd's of London, where it is now rung for ceremonial occasions and before important announcements.

1803 - Lieutenant - Governor Collins arrives on Australia's southern coast to establish a new settlement.

Long before John Batman made his treaty with the Aborigines to lease land at Port Phillip for a new settlement, the British Government instructed Lieutenant-Governor David Collins to establish a settlement on the southern coast. At that stage, the area was still part of New South Wales. The expedition included two ships, 308 convicts, 51 marines, 17 free settlers, 12 civil officers, and a missionary and his wife. On 9 October 1803 Collins and his expedition landed at the site where Sorrento now stands on the Mornington Peninsula, naming it Port King. The Governor of New South Wales at the time, King, was unaware of the expedition or of the British Government's orders.

The settlement was not a success, as fresh water was in short supply. The local timber was unsuitable for many uses, and the treacherous entrance to Port Phillip Bay made the site unusable as a whaling base. Hearing of better land and timber in Van Diemen's Land, Collins moved most of the settlement across Bass Strait. Unimpressed with Lieutenant Bowen's choice of a site at Risdon Cove, Collins established Hobart on the Derwent River early in 1804.

1908 - The Yass-Canberra area is named as the site for the new Federal Capital Territory of Australia.

On 1 January 1901, federation of the six colonies in Australia was achieved and the Commonwealth of Australia was proclaimed. With the establishment of a new nation came the need to build a federal capital. It was decided that the national capital would not be one of the existing state capitals, in order to prevent rivalry between the cities. It would, however, be positioned between Australias two largest cities, Sydney and Melbourne. Section 125 of the Constitution of Australia provided that:

"The seat of Government of the Commonwealth shall be determined by the Parliament, and shall be within territory which shall have been granted to or acquired by the Commonwealth, and shall be vested in and belong to the Commonwealth, and shall be in the State of New South Wales, and be distant not less than one hundred miles from Sydney.

Such territory shall contain an area of not less than one hundred square miles, and such portion thereof as shall consist of Crown lands shall be granted to the Commonwealth without any payment therefore. The Parliament shall sit at Melbourne until it meets at the seat of Government."

Numerous sites were evaluated by members of Parliament. The site for the national capital could not be on the coast, as this could cause it to be susceptible to enemy bombardment. The necessity for a naval port was satisfied by the acquisition of federal land at Jervis Bay. The climate needed to be bracing, to ensure clear minds for political decision-making. There could be no established urban development or industry already, and access to sufficient water was a necessity. It needed to be in an elevated position, preferably surrounded by picturesque mountains.

Locations raised for consideration were Albury, Armidale, Bathurst, Bombala, Dalgety, Delegate, Goulburn, Lake George, Lyndhurst, Orange, Queanbeyan, Tumut, Wagga Wagga and Yass. Bombala was the choice selected by a ballot in the House of Representatives in 1903. Following a change of government in 1904, Dalgety was named as the site of Australias future Federal Capital Territory. When the government changed again in 1905, the question of the most suitable site was resurrected yet again, and in 1906, the choice was narrowed down to Dalgety, Yass-Canberra and Lake George. Another ballot was held on 9 October 1908, and the Yass-Canberra site won by six votes. The territory was defined as a triangle, with Yass in the top corner, the Murrumbidgee River forming the western border and Lake George being in the east. The land was formally transferred from New South Wales in January 1911.

1940 - Singer, songwriter and former member of "The Beatles", John Lennon, is born. [more]

John Lennon was born John Winston Lennon on 9 October 1940. His father walked out on his mother when Lennon was very young, leading his mother to hand the young Lennon over to her sister to care for. Lennon lived with his Aunt Mimi at Mendips throughout his childhood and adolescence, though his mother taught him to play the banjo, retaining an interest in her son's life until she was killed in an accident in 1958.

Lennon was a non-conformist who dropped out of school to devote his time to developing his musical talents. He joined up with Paul McCartney and George Harrison to form a band, taking the name "Johnny and the Moondogs", followed by "The Silver Beetles", which was later shortened to "The Beatles". Lennon is considered to be one of the most influential singer-songwriter-musicians of the 20th century, profoundly affecting the direction of rock 'n' roll music.

Lennon was assassinated by a deranged fan on 8 December 1980, as he and his wife Yoko Ono returned to their apartment in New York city.

1957 - The final major British atomic bomb test is condu

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thanks John. very interesting again.

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Thanks John, enjoyed the read, I do have a lot of catching up now that we're back.
Denise.

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October 10 Today in History


Gday...

1774 - Captain Cook discovers Norfolk Island.

Norfolk Island lies approximately 1,500 km northeast of Sydney, and along with two neighbouring islands forms one of Australia's external territories. The first European to discover Norfolk was Captain Cook, on 10 October 1774. Cook's reports of tall, straight trees (Norfolk pines) and flax-like plants piqued the interest of Britain, whose Royal Navy was dependent on flax for sails and hemp for ropes from Baltic sea ports. Norfolk Island promised a ready supply of these items, and its tall pines could be utilised as ships' masts. Governor Arthur Phillip, Captain of the First Fleet to New South Wales, was ordered to colonise Norfolk Island, before the French could take it.

Following the arrival of the First Fleet in New South Wales, Lieutenant Philip Gidley King led a party of fifteen convicts and seven free men to take control of the island and prepare for its commercial development. They arrived on 6 March 1788. Neither the flax nor the timber industry proved to be viable, and the island developed as a farm, supplying Sydney with grain and vegetables during the early years of the colony's near-starvation. More convicts were sent, and many chose to remain after they had served their sentences. The initial Norfolk Island settlement was abandoned in 1813, but a second penal colony was re-established in 1824, as a place to send the very worst of the convicts. The convicts were treated accordingly and the island gained a reputation as a vicious penal colony. It, too, was abandoned in 1855, after transportation to Australia ceased.

The third settlement was established by descendants of Tahitians and the HMAV Bounty mutineers, resettled from the Pitcairn Islands which had become too small for their growing population. The British government had permitted the transfer of the Pitcairners to Norfolk, which was established as a colony separate from New South Wales but under the administration of that colony's governor. After the creation of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901, Norfolk Island was placed under the authority of the new Commonwealth government to be administered as an external territory. Norfolk Island was granted self-government in 1979.

1780 - The deadliest Atlantic hurricane of all time strikes Barbados, killing 4000, before reaching other areas and causing a much higher death toll.

Hurricane is the name of a violent tropical storm which develops in the northern hemisphere. The equivalent weather phenomenon in the southern hemisphere is known as a cyclone. A particularly destructive force, a hurricane has the capacity to cause extensive damage when it hits the coast, precipitating mudslides, flash floods, storm surges, and wind and fire damage.

The Great Hurricane of 1780 made landfall first at Barbados on 10 October 1780. 4,000 people were killed as the hurricane almost levelled the island on its first day. In the next three days, the Caribbean islands of Martinique and St Eustatius were also hit. As it was the middle of the American Revolution, large numbers of naval personnel were killed when American, British and French fleets were destroyed. It is estimated that around 22,000 people in total died, although the figure could be as high as 30,000.

1844 - On Sturt's final attempt to find the inland sea he still believes exists, he reaches Menindee before heading northwest.

Explorer Charles Sturt's discovery and traversing of the Murray River filled in crucial information about the nature of the inland rivers. For years after Australia was first settled, men believed the rivers flowed into an inland sea. When Sturt discovered that the Lachlan River led to the Murrumbidgee and the latter to the Murray River which then emptied out at the southern coast, he seemed to solve the mystery of the inland rivers. That is, he solved it to the satisfaction of everyone but himself.

Dissatisfied with Eyre's reports of salt lakes and arid desert in central Australia, Sturt determined to settle the question and find out for himself. He was given permission to explore as far north as latitude 28 degrees, and thus he departed Adelaide in August, 1844. Avoiding the salt lakes north of Adelaide, Sturt headed northeast first, and arrived at Lake Cawndilla, near Menindee in far western New South Wales, on 10 October 1844. From here, he headed northwest again. Sturt discovered no inland sea; he did, however, find much forbidding countryside and desert, and his name lives on in Sturt's Stony Desert.

1891 - Australian bushranger Harry Power, mentor to a young Ned Kelly, dies from drowning in the Murray River.

Harry Power, born Henry Johnstone, was a notorious Victorian bushranger. He was born in Waterford, England, in 1819, and transported to Van Diemen's Land in 1841 for stealing shoes. During the 1850s and 1860s, he found himself in trouble with the law a number of times for horse stealing and other crimes. His bushranging career began after he escaped from Pentridge Gaol in 1869. Initially he worked alone, but as he set his sights on higher goals of bushranging, he decided he needed an assistant. A friend, Jack Lloyd, told Power of Lloyd's nephew, Ned Kelly, who was just 15 at the time. Power served as mentor to Ned Kelly, taking him on as an apprentice in 1870 and teaching him the finer arts of bushranging.

Jack Lloyd was the one who finally betrayed Power to the local constabulary. Enticed by the 500 pound reward, Lloyd led the police to Power's hideout at the back of Glenmore Stations homestead. Power was apprehended and, as his crimes were non-violent, he was sentenced to 15 years' gaol. Six years after his release, Power drowned when he fell into the Murray River near Swan Hill, on 10 October 1891.

1944 - In the WWII Holocaust, 800 gypsy children are murdered.

Gypsies are an ethnic group originating in India. During medieval times they took to wandering beyond their homeland, spreading to and throughout Europe. As with the Jewish people, Gypsies were singled out for racial persecution by the Nazis. Whilst they conformed physically to the "Aryan" ideal favoured by the Nazis, suspicion of the nomadic race prevailed, and the Gypsies came under the same attack as the Jews. In all, about 250,000 Gypsies were sent to Auschwitz and other extermination camps, where they were either treated as guinea-pigs for experimental medicines, or executed. On 10 October 1944, about eight hundred Gypsy children were murdered at Auschwitz.

1967 - The Outer Space Treaty comes into effect.

The Outer Space Treaty is more formally known as the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. The Treaty was opened for signature in the USA, United Kingdom and the Soviet Union on 27 January 1967, and came into force on 10 October 1967. As of January 2008, 99 countries were states-parties to the treaty, while another 26 had signed the treaty but had not completed formal ratification.

The Outer Space Treaty forms the basis of international space law. Included among its principles are:

- That no state or party to the Treaty may claim territory for occupation or exploitation in space or on any celestial body.

- That no state or party to the Treaty may place nuclear weapons or any other weapons of mass destruction in orbit of Earth, on the Moon or any other celestial body, or elsewhere in outer space.

- That outer space remain free for all parties to explore, and that such exploration and use of outer space should only be done for the benefit of all countries and in the interests of all mankind.

- That all states and parties to the Treaty will be liable for damage caused by their space objects, and that they will avoid harmful contamination of space and the celestial bodies.

Essentially, the Outer Space Treaty is designed to protect outer space as a resource, and to protect the people of earth from the consequences of mismanagement of outer space.

2009 - The Giant Koala at Dadswells Bridge in Victoria is renamed 'Sam' in honour of bushfire victim Sam the koala.

Sam the koala gained notoriety in February 2009 when she was rescued during backburning operations prior to the devastating Black Saturday bushfires in February 2009. CFA volunteer firefighter David Tree approached the koala with a bottle of water, from which the animal drank; an unusual occurrence, given that koalas rarely drink water. A mobile phone video of the event was broadcast worldwide, creating an instant celebrity in the koala.

Sam was subsequently taken to the Southern Ash Wildlife Centre in Rawson where she was treated for second-degree burns. After living there happily for several months, along with a young male koala who had also been rescued from bushfires, Sam was found to be stricken with the disease chlamydia. She was euthanased on 6 August 2009 when it was discovered her condition was inoperable.

Dadswells Bridge, a town with a population of around 170 near the Grampians in Victoria, is home to the Giant Koala. Standing since 1988, the Giant Koala is a well-known tourist attraction in the area. It is 14 metres high, cast primarily out of bronze and weighs approximately 12 tonnes. On Saturday 10 October 2009, the Giant Koala was officially renamed "Sam" in honour of the koala. The centre aims to raise awareness of the life-threatening disease Chlamydia, while offering a tribute to the hope Sam gave amidst the horrors of the Victorian bushfires.

Cheers - John



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well done again John

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Thanks John, I didn't know about the giant koala being renamed.... thanks for that info.
Denise.

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October 11 Today in History


Gday...

1586 - The trial of Mary, Queen of Scots, begins.

Mary, Queen of Scots, also known as Mary Stuart, was born on 8 December 1542, daughter of Mary de Guise of France and James V of Scotland. When her father died on December 14, the baby Mary became Queen of Scotland but James Hamilton, Duke of Arran, served as regent for Mary. Mary's mother wished to cement an alliance with France, so arranged a betrothal for the young Mary with France's dauphin, Francois. At age 6, Mary was then sent to France to be groomed for her future role as Queen of France, which she took up in 1559.

As the granddaughter of Margaret Tudor, the older sister of Henry VIII of England, Mary Stuart was considered to be the rightful heir to the English throne. This was over Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, whose marriage was not recognised by many Catholics in England because Henry had unlawfully divorced Catherine of Aragon. Mary Stuart, in their eyes, was the rightful heir of Mary I of England, Henry VIII's daughter by his first wife.

Francois died on 5 December 1560, and Mary's mother-in-law, Catherine de Medici, became regent for his brother Charles IX. Mary Stuart then returned to Scotland to rule as Queen, but did not recognise Elizabeth's right to rule in England. Years of plotting and controversy followed as Mary tried to assert her right to the throne, with many conspirators on either side of Mary or Elizabeth being killed as they obstructed the way of the other. Ultimately, the attempt to place Mary on the Scottish throne resulted in her trial, which commenced on 11 October 1586. Mary Queen of Scots was executed on 8 February 1587, on suspicion of having been involved in a plot to murder Elizabeth.

1738 - Captain Arthur Phillip, first Governor of New South Wales, is born.

Arthur Phillip was born in London on 11 October 1738. He joined the Royal Navy when he was fifteen, and alternately earned a living as a navy officer and as a farmer. In October 1786, Phillip was appointed Governor-designate of the proposed British penal colony of New South Wales. He was a practical man who suggested that convicts with experience in farming, building and crafts be included in the First Fleet, but his proposal was rejected. The First Fleet left Portsmouth, England, on 13 May 1787, and arrived in Botany Bay on 18 January 1788. Phillip immediately determined that there was insufficient fresh water, an absence of usable timber, poor quality soil and no safe harbour at Botany Bay. Thus the fleet was moved to Port Jackson, arriving on 26 January 1788.

Phillip faced many obstacles in his attempts to establish the new colony. British farming methods, seeds and implements were unsuitable for use in the different climate and soil, and the colony faced near-starvation in its first two years. Phillip also worked to improve understanding with the local Aborigines. The colony finally succeeded in developing a solid foundation, agriculturally and economically, thanks to the perseverance of Captain Arthur Phillip.

Poor health forced Phillip to return to England in 1792. He resigned his commission soon after arriving back in England, and died on 31 August 1814.

1896 - Lawrence Wells makes the fateful decision to split his exploration party, leading to the deaths of two men.

Very little of Australia was left unexplored by the late 1800s, but the Great Sandy Desert of Western Australia remained an unconquered frontier. In 1896, Albert Calvert, a London-based gold-mining engineer with interests in Western Australia, sponsored an expedition to fill in the unexplored blanks on the map and hopefully, find some likely gold-bearing country into the bargain. The Royal Geographical Society of South Australia was asked to organise the Calvert Scientific Exploring Expedition, financed by Calvert. The expedition's leader was surveyor Lawrence Wells, and accompanying him was surveyor Charles Wells, his cousin, an Adelaide mineralogist by the name of George Jones, a cook and a camel driver.

In October 1896, the party camped at a small permanent waterhole south-east of Lake George, which they named Separation Well. Here, on 11 October 1896, Lawrence Wells made the fateful decision to split the party into two groups. Charles Wells and Jones set off on a bearing of 290 degrees to survey lands for 144 kilometres north-west, before turning north-north-east to rejoin the main party at Joanna Spring, located and mapped by explorer Warburton in 1873. When Lawrence Wells' party reached Joanna Spring on 29 October, there was no sign of the other party. Unable to even locate the spring, the leader made for the Fitzroy River, where he raised the alarm regarding the missing explorers via the Fitzroy Crossing Telegraph Station.

Four search parties were dispatched, covering over five thousand kilometres, with no success. Aborigines plundered the bodies of all clothing and other items, and when some of these items were located in the Aborigines' possession, the Aborigines led the searchers to where the bodies lay. On 27 May 1897 the bodies of Wells and Jones were recovered by the white search party, perfectly preserved by the intense heat, just 22km from Joanna Spring. The mummified bodies were sewn in sheets and taken to Derby, where they were shipped to Adelaide and given a State funeral on 18 July 1897.

1906 - The Coat of Arms of New South Wales is granted by Royal Warrant.

Each of the states of Australia has its own unique symbols and emblems. By the time Federation occurred in 1901, Queensland and South Australia had already adopted a coat of arms. In 1905, the Colonial Office suggested the state of New South Wales apply for a coat of arms to be granted. NSW Premier Joseph Carruthers commissioned NSW Government Printer, William Applegate Gullick, to make several designs, drawing upon symbols already used in the state seal. The final design was conferred by Royal warrant of Edward VII on 11 October 1906.

1987 - A huge sonar exploration of Loch Ness in Scotland fails to find any sign of the Loch Ness monster.

Loch Ness, or Loch Nis in Gaelic, is a large, deep freshwater lake in the Scottish Highlands, which extends for about 37 km southwest of Inverness. It is the second largest loch (lake) in Scotland, with a surface area of 56.4 km2, but is the largest in volume. It is 226 m deep at its deepest point.

For centuries, witnesses have reported sighting a large monster with a long neck in Loch Ness, Scotland. Famous photographs have been proven to be hoaxes, but still the myth of the monster has persisted. On 11 October 1987, "Operation Deepscan", a major sonar exploration of the Loch, was undertaken by a team of 20 cruisers. High-tech sonar equipment bounced sound waves to the bottom of the lake, electronically recording any contacts. Three sonar contacts showed up as crescent shaped marks, but the results of the sonar test did not indicate there was anything unusual on the bottom of Loch Ness.

Cheers - John



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RE: Today in History


well done again John very interesting.

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Dave S

ex Bricklayer 20 years & 33 years Carpet Cleaning

but what do i know, i'm only a old fart.

iv'e lost my glass.



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People love their myths such as Nessy, the creature from Loch Ness. Imagine how many headlines that myth has created over the years, and the tourism revenue! Does it mean that people are gullible or that they just enjoy believing in porkies?

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Gary

Ford Courier with Freeway slide-on called "PJ". www.aussieodyssey.com



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October 12 Today in History


Gday...

1823 - Charles Macintosh of Scotland begins selling the raincoat he has invented.

In the UK, raincoats are commonly called Macintoshes, after their inventor. Early in the 19th century Charles Macintosh, after discovering that coal-tar naphtha dissolved india rubber, painted one side of woollen cloth with a dissolved rubber solution, and placed another layer of woollen cloth on top. By so doing, he invented a method for making waterproof garments. Thus, Macintosh produced macintosh coats, which he first began selling on 12 October 1823.

In 1838, Charles Macintosh joined forces with Thomas Han****, the English inventor credited with founding the British rubber industry. Han**** invented the masticator, a machine that shredded rubber scraps, forming a warm rubber mixture which could then be shaped and mixed with other materials. Together, Macintosh and Han**** improved the design of the macintosh.

1838 - Second Governor of South Australia, Lieutenant George Gawler, arrives in the colony.

George Gawler was born on 21 July 1795 in Devon, England. Upon finishing his schooling, he was educated at the military college of Great Marlow, where he was an exemplary student. Gawler had led a distinguished military career, and when a group of colonisation commissioners requested recommendations from the Royal Military College for a godly man as governor of South Australia, Gawler was encouraged to apply for the position. His application was accepted, and he was appointed as Governor of South Australia, taking over from the colonys first Governor, John Hindmarsh. Gawler arrived in South Australia on 12 October 1838.

Prior to leaving England Gawler was concerned by the lack of financial provisions allowed for improvements in the colony, and upon his arrival he discovered many significant problems. Adelaides facilities and resources were stretched to breaking point, the legacy of too many settlers being forced to remain in the settlement due to the shortage of land which had been opened up for farming. Gawler was forced to make many expensive improvements, ignoring the instructions issued to him to undertake no major improvements. Upon the retirement of the colonys first surveyor-general, Colonel William Light, Gawler commissioned Charles Sturt for the position, as his exploration of the Murray River had played a vital part in choosing a site for the new southern colony. Sturts expeditions north, plus Gawlers own explorations, opened up new land for settlement. Many public buildings such as Customs House, the Adelaide Gaol and a new Government House were constructed. Further public works were initiated, such as building and improving roads, improving the facilities at Port Adelaide and establishing a police force and barracks. Despite his limited budget, he was also forced to make provision for the thousands of immigrants who streamed into the colony under free passage.

During his tenure, Governor Gawler made South Australia self-sufficient in terms of agriculture, and restored public confidence. However, the increased public expenditure was a contributing factor to the colony going bankrupt by 1840, as was the effect of drought and crop failure in the neighbouring colonies. Gawler was dismissed, and replaced by Captain George Grey, less than three years after his appointment.

Although criticised for his actions at the time, in retrospect it can be seen that Gawler was placed in a difficult position whereby he had to take decisive action contrary to his instructions. The town of Gawler and the Gawler Ranges are named after him.

1918 - Australian children's classic "The Magic Pudding" is first published.

"The Magic Pudding" is a novel by artist and writer Norman Lindsay, who was known for his unusual and creative approach. Norman Alfred William Lindsay was born on 22 February 1879 in Creswick, Victoria, Australia. He was a skilled artist, and his paintings were controversial for their time, concentrating on nudes, often incorporating pagan themes of gods and goddesses, nymphs and satyrs, in an Australian bush setting. Much of his work, which includes watercolours, lithographs, and etchings, can be found at his former home at Faulconbridge, New South Wales, now the Norman Lindsay Gallery and Museum.

As well as his prolific output of paintings, Lindsay was a writer who completed eleven novels between 1913 and 1950. His best known work is possibly "The Magic Pudding", first published on 12 October 1918. "The Magic Pudding" is a children's classic about a sarcastic and bad-tempered walking, talking pudding that can be whatever food it wants to be, and eaten without ever running out. The story was originally written by Lindsay as a means to take his mind off World War I and the tragic loss of his brother at the Somme. The storyline itself was the result of an argument between Lindsay and another writer, Bertram Stevens. Stevens was convinced that children were drawn to stories about fairies: Lindsay believed that food was the drawcard. The ultimate success of Linday's novel would suggest that he was correct.

Despite Lindsay's own criticism of it, calling it a 'little bundle of piffle', "The Magic Pudding" went on to become an Australian classic, enduring for many generations beyond Lindsay's lifetime.

1994 - Contact with the Magellan space probe is lost after it completes radar-mapping of the surface of Venus.

The Magellan spacecraft was launched from Florida on 4 May 1989. On 10 August 1990, Magellan entered into orbit about Venus. During its four years in orbit around the planet, it mapped over 98 percent of the planet's surface and collected high-resolution gravity data of Venus. With the deliberate intention of crash-landing the probe, a final aero-braking experiment was carried out in October 1994, achieved by turning Magellan's solar arrays so that the spacecraft behaved like a propeller. Communications with the probe were lost on 12 October 1994, and the probe burned up in Venus's atmosphere a few days later. The purpose of the crash landing was to collect data on the atmosphere and on how the spacecraft performed as it descended.

2002 - Over 200 people, almost half of whom are Australians, are killed in an explosion at a night club in Bali, Indonesia.

Australians felt the impact of terrorism first-hand at 11:30pm local time on 12 October 2002. 202 people were killed and a further 209 injured when two separate bombs exploded in the town of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali, just before midnight. An electronically triggered bomb hidden in a backpack exploded in Paddy's Bar first. Just a few seconds later, a far more powerful 1000kg car bomb hidden in a white Mitsubishi van was detonated by remote control in front of the Sari Club. The dead included 99 Australians, 38 Indonesians and 26 British, as well as holiday-makers from many other nations.

No group actively claimed responsibility for the bombings, although Indonesian members of the regional Islamic group Jemaah Islamiah (JI) were named as key suspects, particularly since JI has alleged links to al-Qaeda. That same month, Abu Bakar Bashir, a leader of JI, was charged over his alleged role in the bombing. In March 2005, Bashir was found guilty of conspiracy over the attacks in Bali. On 8 August 2003, Amrozi bin Haji Nurhasyim was found guilty and sentenced to death for buying the explosives and the van used in the bombings. Another two participants, Imam Samudra and Mukhlas, were also sentenced to death.

Cheers - John



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2006 Discovery 3 TDV6 SE Auto - 2008 23ft Golden Eagle Hunter
Some people feel the rain - the others just get wet - Bob Dylan

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